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What is Copper?

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Palladium
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Gold
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Periodic table of chemical elements is an arrangement of elements in the form of rows (period) and columns (Group). They are arranged with respect to their atomic numbers and similar characteristics. Copper In Periodic Table </>
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It’s an atomic symbol of Copper which helps identifying it in periodic table. Symbol
Cu
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Group number of Metals is vertical column number in periodic table. Group Number
11
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7
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Period number is a horizontal row number of Metals in periodic table. Period Number
4
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Periodic table is subdivided into 4 blocks i.e p-block, d-block, s-block and f-block. Block
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The d-block is on the middle of the periodic table and includes elements from columns 3 through 12. These elements are also known as the transition metals because they show a transitivity in their properties i.e. they show a trend in their properties.d block
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Metals belongs to the subcategory of periodic table. Different element families exist in this table. For example, Alkali metals, Transition metals, alkaline earth metals, post-transition metals, Lanthanide & Actinide series metals. Element Family
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What is Transition Metal? All transition metals are placed under the d-block from group number 3 to 12. Transition metals show characteristics like malleability, ductility and are good conductor of electricity.Transition Metal
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The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) is part of the American Chemical Society and maintains a database of chemical compounds and sequences. and each element has its unique identification number known as CAS number. CAS Number
7440508
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37
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of the symmetry of the crystal. Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of thesymmetry of the crystal. Space Group Number
225.00
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2
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Want to know Interesting and lesser known facts about Copper, then you are at the right place. Facts about Copper </>
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Bunch of Interesting facts about Copper. Interesting Facts
  • Copper rarely found in its pure form in nature.
  • Copper Sulfate is mostly used in agricultural poison and as an algicide in water purification system.
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List of different sources of Copper. Sources
Found in Minerals
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Lets check out the facts about history of Copper. History of Copper
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You might be wondering who discovered Copper metal? Who Discovered Copper
Unknown
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Copper metal’s discovery period. Because we think most of the metals are discovered by our ant-sisters but is it really true? Let’s Find out then! Discovery
In Middle East (9000 BCE)
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Abundance percentage of Copper metal at various places. This will give you an idea about its Abundance levels. Abundance of Copper
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Universe. Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
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12
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Sun. Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
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13
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Meteorites. Abundance In Meteorites
0.01 %
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13
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Earth’s Crust. Abundance In Earth’s Crust
0.01 %
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17
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Oceans. Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
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8
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Abundance percentage of Copper in Humans. Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
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9
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Different types of Copper Uses and benefits are listed down below. Uses of Copper </>
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Uses & Benefits Uses & Benefits
  • It is use for coinage and bullion.
  • Most of copper element is used in manufacturing electrical and electronic equipments such as wirings and components. It is also used in construction and industrial machine.
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List of industrial uses of Copper. Industrial Uses
  • ?
    This metal is used in chemical industry where it is used making different chemical compounds or elements and alloys.Chemical Industry
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    Metals good are conductor of heat and electricity. Metals are used in electronic industry where usually it is used in manufacturing different components, gadgets or wires, etc.Electronic Industry
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List of medical uses of Copper. Medical Uses
NA
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List of lesser known uses of Copper metal. Other Uses
  • ?
    An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys of this metals are very useful.Alloys
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    Historically, many coinage metals (or alloys) are from the three nonradioactive members of group 11 of the periodic table.Coinage
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    Precious metals are used in making various types of jewelries.Jewellery
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Biological properties of Copper. Biological Properties
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Toxicity level of Copper metal. Toxicity
Non Toxic
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Whether Copper metal is present in the Human Body? Present in Human Body
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What amount of Copper is present in human blood normally? In Blood
1.01 Blood/mg dm-3
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8
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What amount of Copper is present in human bone normally? In Bone
26.00 p.p.m.
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12
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Physical properties or characteristics of Copper. These properties are mostly related to its appearance and surface. Physical Properties of Copper </>
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The temperature at which Metals metal starts melting. Melting Point
1,084.62 °C
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40
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The temperature at which Metals starts boiling. Not literally it is a temperature point at which it converts to vapors. Boiling Point
2,562.00 °C
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43
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Physical appearance or look and feel of Copper is described here. Appearance of Copper
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Physical state or phase of Copper at room temperature. Physical State
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At room temperature almost all metal are found in solid physical sate but only the mercury element found in liquid state.Solid
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One might wonder, what is the exact color of Copper metal in nature? Color
Copper
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Metals generally exhibit a metallic luster! Lets check out the look and feel of Copper metal. Luster
NA
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Hardness of Copper which measures how resistant this metals is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Hardness of Copper
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Mohs Hardness of Copper is a scale for measuring its hardness. Mohs Hardness
3.00
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12
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Brinell Hardness of Copper is a scale for measuring their hardness. Brinell Hardness
235.00 MPa
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38
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Vickers Hardness of Copper is a scale for measuring their hardness. Vickers Hardness
343.00 MPa
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28
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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Speed of Sound
3,810.00 m/s
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19
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Optical properties related to refractive index & the reflectivity parameters of Copper. Optical Properties
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Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. Here you will get to know how much is the reflectivity percentage of this metal. Reflectivity
90.00 %
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3
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Allotropes are different structural modifications of an metals; the atoms of the metals are bonded together with the help of different crystal structure. Allotropes
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these alpha allotropes of this metal are listed here. α Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these beta allotropes of this metal are listed here. β Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these gamma allotropes of this metal are listed here. γ Allotropes
Not Available
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Chemical properties or characteristics of Copper are listed here. Chemical Properties of Copper </>
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Chemical formula or atomic symbol of Copper. This symbol is very useful while mentioning chemical reactions and equations of this metals. Chemical Formula
Cu
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Isotopes of Copper are its variants, which differ in neutron number present in the nucleus. Isotopes of Copper
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The total number of known Isotopes of this metal. Known Isotopes
29
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10
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Electronegativity
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Pauling Electronegativity is very popular scale to measure Electronegativity of metals. Pauling Electronegativity
1.90
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11
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Sanderson Electronegativity is another scale to measure the Electronegativity of metals. Sanderson Electronegativity
1.98
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9
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Allred Rochow Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.75
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3
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Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.49
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14
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Allen Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allen Electronegativity
1.85
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9
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Opposite of that is known as Electropositivity. Electropositivity
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Pauling Electropositivity is scale used to mesure Electropositivity of Copper. Pauling Electropositivity
2.10
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42
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The ionization energy (IE) or the ionization potential is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. Ionization Energies
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1st energy level of Copper. 1st Energy Level
745.50 kJ/mol
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22
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2nd energy level of Copper. 2nd Energy Level
1,957.90 kJ/mol
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15
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3rd energy level of Copper. 3rd Energy Level
3,555.00 kJ/mol
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15
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4th energy level of Copper. 4th Energy Level
5,536.00 kJ/mol
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12
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5th energy level of Copper. 5th Energy Level
7,700.00 kJ/mol
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11
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6th energy level of Copper. 6th Energy Level
9,900.00 kJ/mol
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10
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7th energy level of Copper. 7th Energy level
13,400.00 kJ/mol
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7
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8th energy level of Copper. 8th Energy Level
16,000.00 kJ/mol
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9
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9th energy level of Copper. 9th Energy Level
19,200.00 kJ/mol
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9
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10th energy level of Copper. 10th Energy Level
22,400.00 kJ/mol
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11
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11th energy level of Copper. 11th Energy Level
25,600.00 kJ/mol
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13
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12th energy level of Copper. 12th Energy Level
35,600.00 kJ/mol
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7
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13th energy level of Copper. 13th Energy Level
38,700.00 kJ/mol
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7
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14th energy level of Copper. 14th Energy Level
42,000.00 kJ/mol
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7
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15th energy level of Copper. 15th Energy Level
46,700.00 kJ/mol
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9
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16th energy level of Copper. 16th Energy Level
50,200.00 kJ/mol
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10
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17th energy level of Copper. 17th Energy Level
53,700.00 kJ/mol
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12
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18th energy level of Copper. 18th Energy Level
61,100.00 kJ/mol
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11
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19th energy level of Copper. 19th Energy Level
64,702.00 kJ/mol
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13
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20th energy level of Copper. 20th Energy Level
163,700.00 kJ/mol
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4
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21st energy level of Copper. 21st Energy Level
174,100.00 kJ/mol
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4
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22nd energy level of Copper. 22nd Energy Level
184,900.00 kJ/mol
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3
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23rd energy level of Copper. 23rd Energy Level
198,800.00 kJ/mol
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3
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24th energy level of Copper. 24th Energy Level
210,500.00 kJ/mol
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3
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25th energy level of Copper. 25th Energy Level
222,700.00 kJ/mol
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3
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26th energy level of Copper. 26th Energy Level
239,100.00 kJ/mol
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3
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27th energy level of Copper. 27th Energy Level
249,660.00 kJ/mol
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3
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28th energy level of Copper. 28th Energy Level
1,067,358.00 kJ/mol
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1
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29th energy level of Copper. 29th Energy Level
1,116,105.00 kJ/mol
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1
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The electrochemical equivalent of a Copper element is the mass of this element (in grams) transported by 1 coulomb of electricity. The electrochemical equivalent of an element is measured with a voltameter. Electrochemical Equivalent
1.19 g/amp-hr
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53
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Electron work function of Copper is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface. Electron Work Function
4.65 eV
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11
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List of all chemical properties/characteristics/behavior of Copper. Other Chemical Properties
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Stable metals are non radioactive metals and have zero valence electrons in the outer shell.Chemical Stability, 
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Corrosion is a process which converts refined metals to their more stable forms, for example, its oxide and hydroxide. This process of metals getting corroded is a gradual destruction of metals by chemical reactions.Corrosion, 
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Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.Ionization, 
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Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.Solubility
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Detailed information about the atomic structure of Copper. Atomic Properties of Copper </>
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Atomic number of Metals is the number of protons present in the atom of Metals metal. Atomic Number
29
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78
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The electron configuration of Copper is the distribution of its electrons in atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals. Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
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In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. There are different types of Crystal structure exhibited by metals. Crystal Structure
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In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals.Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
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Images of crystal lattice of Copper. It is a symmetrical three-dimensional arrangement of atoms inside a crystal. Crystal Lattice
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Information about number of Electrons, protons and neutrons present inside the atom of Copper Metal. Atom of Copper
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Number of protons present in the nucleus of Copper. Number of Protons
29
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77
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Number of neutrons present in the nucleus of Copper. Number of Neutrons
35
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59
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Number of Electrons present inside the atom of Copper. Number of Electrons
29
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77
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Radius of an Atom of Copper. Different radius measures are listed below. Radius of an Atom
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The atomic radius of Copper can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Atomic Radius
128.00 pm
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46
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The covalent radius of Copper can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Covalent Radius
132.00 pm
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48
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The Van der Waals Radius of Copper can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Van der Waals Radius
140.00 pm
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44
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The atomic weight is the average of the isotope weights weighted for the isotope distribution and expressed on the 12C scale. Atomic Weight
63.55 amu
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72
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Atomic Volume of Copper means volume of its atoms. Atomic Volume
7.10 cm3/mol
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61
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It will let know the previous and next atomic number of Copper. Adjacent Atomic Numbers
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Previous atomic number metal. For eg. If the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the previous atomic number belongs to Platinum which is 78. Previous Element
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Next atomic number metal. For eg. if the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the next atomic number belongs to Mercury which is 80. Next Element
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The valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond. Valence Electron Potential
34.00 (-eV)
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50
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The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattice Constant
361.49 pm
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35
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The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the Lattice angle. Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
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It’s a ratio of Lattice constant by Lattice angle. Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
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List of different mechanical properties of Copper metal. These properties test the mechanical strength of this metal. Mechanical Properties of Copper </>
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The density of Copper metal is a relationship between the mass of the Copper atom and how much space it takes up (volume). Density of Copper
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Copper density at room temperature. Density At Room Temperature
8.96 g/cm3
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43
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Copper density When at liquid state (at m.p.). Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
8.02 g/cm3
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27
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Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. Tensile Strength
Not Available
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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity
Not Available
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Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. Vapor Pressure of Copper
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Vapor Pressure of Copper at temperature 1000 K. Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.53 (Pa)
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8
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How much it will compress under a given amount of external pressure, that can be found with the help of its elasticity modulus. Elasticity properties
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Shear Modulus of Copper is a measure of its elastic properties. Shear Modulus
48.00 GPa
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15
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Bulk Modulus of Copper is a measure of its elastic properties. Bulk Modulus
140.00 GPa
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12
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Young’s Modulus of Copper is a measure of its elastic properties. Young’s Modulus
120.00 GPa
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17
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Poisson’s ratio, named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. Poisson Ratio
0.34
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10
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Whether Copper exhibits properties like ductility , malleability, weldability, sectility, etc. Other Mechanical Properties
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Ductility of metals defines their ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to be stretched into a wire.Ductile, 
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Malleability of metals defines their ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.Malleable
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List of different magnetic properties and characteristics of Copper. Magnetic Properties of Copper </>
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Different Magnetic significance of Copper. Magnetic Characteristics of Copper
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Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Specific Gravity
8.89
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34
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Magnetic Ordering of Copper defines its magnetic orientation (nature) and magnetic type. Magnetic Ordering
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Diamagnetic metals produce a magnetic field opposite to the applied magnetic field. Thus, they are repelled by magnets and show magnetic nature.Diamagnetic
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Permeability is the ability of a material to become magnetized. Permeability (μ)
1.256629 * 10-6 H/m
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5
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It denotes the degree to which the metal is sensitive to a magnetic field. Copper Volumetric Susceptibility
-9.63 * 10-6
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4
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List of different electrical properties and significance of Copper. Electrical Properties
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Electrical property or nature of Copper defines its electrical orientation and electrical type. Electrical Property
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Conductor metals have very low resistance to electric currents. They can easily conduct electric current through them.Conductor
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Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. Resistivity
16.78 nΩ·m
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50
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Electrical conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge. Electrical Conductivity
0.60 106/cm Ω
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2
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Electron affinity is defined as the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. Electron Affinity
222.80 kJ/mol
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1
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Thermal characteristic and the concepts thermodynamics of Copper. Thermal Properties of Copper </>
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The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Specific Heat
0.38 J/(kg K)
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15
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The molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit amount (SI unit: mole) of a pure substance. Molar Heat Capacity
24.44 J/mol·K
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51
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Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. Thermal Conductivity
401.00 W/m·K
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2
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The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied. Critical Temperature
Not Available
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer. Thermal Expansion
16.50 µm/(m·K)
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25
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Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume given by the equation. Enthalpy of Copper
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The enthalpy of vaporization, also known as the heat of vaporization, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Enthalpy of Vaporization
283.70 kJ/mol
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33
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The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid. The temperature at which this occurs is the melting point. Enthalpy of Fusion
7.11 kJ/mol
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46
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The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound). Enthalpy of Atomization
338.90 kJ/mol
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29
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The standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure). Standard Molar Entropy
33.20 J/mol.K
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45
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Copper Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Copper metal is also represented by the symbol Cu. This atomic symbol of Copper is useful in indicating the position of metal Cu in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Copper? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Cu metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Copper

Periodic table of Copper comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Copper metal belongs to Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 11, whereas its period number is 4. It is placed under d block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent d block elements.

Copper Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Copper are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Copper is 29 and its atomic weight is 63.55 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Ar] 3d10 4s1. Nuclear particles in Copper atom are 35 neutrons, 29 protons and 29 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Copper

Physical and chemical characteristics of Copper are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Copper include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Copper Solid. It starts melting at 1,084.62 °C. All these Copper metal properties together define what is Copper?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og