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What is Lead?

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Periodic table of chemical elements is an arrangement of elements in the form of rows (period) and columns (Group). They are arranged with respect to their atomic numbers and similar characteristics. Lead In Periodic Table </>
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It’s an atomic symbol of Lead which helps identifying it in periodic table. Symbol
Pb
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Group number of Metals is vertical column number in periodic table. Group Number
14
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4
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Period number is a horizontal row number of Metals in periodic table. Period Number
6
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Periodic table is subdivided into 4 blocks i.e p-block, d-block, s-block and f-block. Block
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The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table and includes elements from the six columns beginning with column 13 and ending with column 18. Helium, though being in the top of group 18, is not included in the p-block.p block
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Metals belongs to the subcategory of periodic table. Different element families exist in this table. For example, Alkali metals, Transition metals, alkaline earth metals, post-transition metals, Lanthanide & Actinide series metals. Element Family
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All post transition metals are placed in group number 13, 14 and 15 of periodic table. In fact, they are located between Transition Metals and Metalloids. Post transition metals have very poor mechanical properties.Post-​Transition
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The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) is part of the American Chemical Society and maintains a database of chemical compounds and sequences. and each element has its unique identification number known as CAS number. CAS Number
7439921
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86
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of the symmetry of the crystal. Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of thesymmetry of the crystal. Space Group Number
225.00
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2
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Want to know Interesting and lesser known facts about Lead, then you are at the right place. Facts about Lead </>
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Bunch of Interesting facts about Lead. Interesting Facts
  • Galena mineral contains almost 87% of Lead metal in it, Galena is sulfide mineral.
  • The best available source of Lead metal today is by recycling automobile batteries.
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List of different sources of Lead. Sources
  • Earth's crust
  • Found in Minerals
  • Mining
  • Ores of metals
  • Ores of Minerals
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Lets check out the facts about history of Lead. History of Lead
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You might be wondering who discovered Lead metal? Who Discovered Lead
Unknown
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Lead metal’s discovery period. Because we think most of the metals are discovered by our ant-sisters but is it really true? Let’s Find out then! Discovery
In Middle Easterns (7000 BCE)
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Abundance percentage of Lead metal at various places. This will give you an idea about its Abundance levels. Abundance of Lead
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Universe. Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
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16
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Sun. Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
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19
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Meteorites. Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
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23
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Earth’s Crust. Abundance In Earth’s Crust
0.00 %
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26
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Oceans. Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
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22
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Abundance percentage of Lead in Humans. Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
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8
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Different types of Lead Uses and benefits are listed down below. Uses of Lead </>
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Uses & Benefits Uses & Benefits
  • It is also used in insecticides, hair dyes and as an anti-knocking additive for petrol. But all these are banned by the government as Lead metal is known for detrimental to health.
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List of industrial uses of Lead. Industrial Uses
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    This metal is used in chemical industry where it is used making different chemical compounds or elements and alloys.Chemical Industry
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    As the metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This metal is used in electrical industry where usually it is used in manufacturing different components, gadgets or wires, etc.Electrical Industry
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    Metals good are conductor of heat and electricity. Metals are used in electronic industry where usually it is used in manufacturing different components, gadgets or wires, etc.Electronic Industry
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List of medical uses of Lead. Medical Uses
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Used for manufacturing surgical instruments.Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
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List of lesser known uses of Lead metal. Other Uses
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An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys of this metals are very useful.Alloys
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Biological properties of Lead. Biological Properties
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Toxicity level of Lead metal. Toxicity
Toxic
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Whether Lead metal is present in the Human Body? Present in Human Body
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What amount of Lead is present in human blood normally? In Blood
0.21 Blood/mg dm-3
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11
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What amount of Lead is present in human bone normally? In Bone
30.00 p.p.m.
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10
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Physical properties or characteristics of Lead. These properties are mostly related to its appearance and surface. Physical Properties of Lead </>
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The temperature at which Metals metal starts melting. Melting Point
327.50 °C
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67
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The temperature at which Metals starts boiling. Not literally it is a temperature point at which it converts to vapors. Boiling Point
1,740.00 °C
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53
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Physical appearance or look and feel of Lead is described here. Appearance of Lead
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Physical state or phase of Lead at room temperature. Physical State
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At room temperature almost all metal are found in solid physical sate but only the mercury element found in liquid state.Solid
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One might wonder, what is the exact color of Lead metal in nature? Color
Gray
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Metals generally exhibit a metallic luster! Lets check out the look and feel of Lead metal. Luster
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Metals are hard/soft and have different type of luster. Here we present you a list metals and these metals exhibit metallic luster.Metallic
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Hardness of Lead which measures how resistant this metals is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Hardness of Lead
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Mohs Hardness of Lead is a scale for measuring its hardness. Mohs Hardness
1.50
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18
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Brinell Hardness of Lead is a scale for measuring their hardness. Brinell Hardness
38.00 MPa
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49
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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Speed of Sound
1,190.00 m/s
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52
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Optical properties related to refractive index & the reflectivity parameters of Lead. Optical Properties
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Allotropes are different structural modifications of an metals; the atoms of the metals are bonded together with the help of different crystal structure. Allotropes
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these alpha allotropes of this metal are listed here. α Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these beta allotropes of this metal are listed here. β Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these gamma allotropes of this metal are listed here. γ Allotropes
Not Available
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Chemical properties or characteristics of Lead are listed here. Chemical Properties of Lead </>
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Chemical formula or atomic symbol of Lead. This symbol is very useful while mentioning chemical reactions and equations of this metals. Chemical Formula
Pb
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Isotopes of Lead are its variants, which differ in neutron number present in the nucleus. Isotopes of Lead
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The total number of known Isotopes of this metal. Known Isotopes
35
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4
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Electronegativity
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Pauling Electronegativity is very popular scale to measure Electronegativity of metals. Pauling Electronegativity
1.87
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13
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Sanderson Electronegativity is another scale to measure the Electronegativity of metals. Sanderson Electronegativity
2.29
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4
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Allred Rochow Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.55
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11
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Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
2.41
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2
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Allen Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allen Electronegativity
1.85
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8
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Opposite of that is known as Electropositivity. Electropositivity
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Pauling Electropositivity is scale used to mesure Electropositivity of Lead. Pauling Electropositivity
1.67
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51
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The ionization energy (IE) or the ionization potential is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. Ionization Energies
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1st energy level of Lead. 1st Energy Level
715.60 kJ/mol
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31
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2nd energy level of Lead. 2nd Energy Level
1,450.50 kJ/mol
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43
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3rd energy level of Lead. 3rd Energy Level
3,081.50 kJ/mol
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23
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4th energy level of Lead. 4th Energy Level
4,083.00 kJ/mol
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35
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5th energy level of Lead. 5th Energy Level
6,640.00 kJ/mol
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20
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The electrochemical equivalent of a Lead element is the mass of this element (in grams) transported by 1 coulomb of electricity. The electrochemical equivalent of an element is measured with a voltameter. Electrochemical Equivalent
3.87 g/amp-hr
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9
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Electron work function of Lead is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface. Electron Work Function
4.25 eV
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21
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List of all chemical properties/characteristics/behavior of Lead. Other Chemical Properties
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Anti-corrosion metals have the protection on their surfaces which protect them from corroding in corrosive environments.Anti Corrosion, 
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Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.Ionization, 
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Radioactive metals emit particles and radiation from their nuclei. This process comes in the picture because their nuclei experience the intense conflict between two strong forces. This metal also have radioactive isotopes.Radioactive Isotopes
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Detailed information about the atomic structure of Lead. Atomic Properties of Lead </>
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Atomic number of Metals is the number of protons present in the atom of Metals metal. Atomic Number
82
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34
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The electron configuration of Lead is the distribution of its electrons in atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals. Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
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In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. There are different types of Crystal structure exhibited by metals. Crystal Structure
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In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals.Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
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Images of crystal lattice of Lead. It is a symmetrical three-dimensional arrangement of atoms inside a crystal. Crystal Lattice
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Information about number of Electrons, protons and neutrons present inside the atom of Lead Metal. Atom of Lead
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Number of protons present in the nucleus of Lead. Number of Protons
82
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34
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Number of neutrons present in the nucleus of Lead. Number of Neutrons
125
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20
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Number of Electrons present inside the atom of Lead. Number of Electrons
82
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34
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Radius of an Atom of Lead. Different radius measures are listed below. Radius of an Atom
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The atomic radius of Lead can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Atomic Radius
175.00 pm
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19
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The covalent radius of Lead can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Covalent Radius
146.00 pm
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38
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The Van der Waals Radius of Lead can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Van der Waals Radius
202.00 pm
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27
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The atomic weight is the average of the isotope weights weighted for the isotope distribution and expressed on the 12C scale. Atomic Weight
207.20 amu
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30
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Atomic Volume of Lead means volume of its atoms. Atomic Volume
18.17 cm3/mol
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27
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It will let know the previous and next atomic number of Lead. Adjacent Atomic Numbers
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Previous atomic number metal. For eg. If the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the previous atomic number belongs to Platinum which is 78. Previous Element
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Next atomic number metal. For eg. if the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the next atomic number belongs to Mercury which is 80. Next Element
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The valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond. Valence Electron Potential
24.20 (-eV)
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57
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The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattice Constant
495.08 pm
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16
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The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the Lattice angle. Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
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It’s a ratio of Lattice constant by Lattice angle. Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
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List of different mechanical properties of Lead metal. These properties test the mechanical strength of this metal. Mechanical Properties of Lead </>
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The density of Lead metal is a relationship between the mass of the Lead atom and how much space it takes up (volume). Density of Lead
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Lead density at room temperature. Density At Room Temperature
11.34 g/cm3
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33
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Lead density When at liquid state (at m.p.). Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.66 g/cm3
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15
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Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. Tensile Strength
12.00 MPa
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20
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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity
Not Available
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Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. Vapor Pressure of Lead
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Vapor Pressure of Lead at temperature 1000 K. Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.64 (Pa)
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7
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How much it will compress under a given amount of external pressure, that can be found with the help of its elasticity modulus. Elasticity properties
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Shear Modulus of Lead is a measure of its elastic properties. Shear Modulus
5.60 GPa
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47
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Bulk Modulus of Lead is a measure of its elastic properties. Bulk Modulus
46.00 GPa
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24
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Young’s Modulus of Lead is a measure of its elastic properties. Young’s Modulus
16.00 GPa
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48
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Poisson’s ratio, named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. Poisson Ratio
0.44
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3
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Whether Lead exhibits properties like ductility , malleability, weldability, sectility, etc. Other Mechanical Properties
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Ductility of metals defines their ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to be stretched into a wire.Ductile, 
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Malleability of metals defines their ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.Malleable
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List of different magnetic properties and characteristics of Lead. Magnetic Properties of Lead </>
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Different Magnetic significance of Lead. Magnetic Characteristics of Lead
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Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Specific Gravity
11.35
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25
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Magnetic Ordering of Lead defines its magnetic orientation (nature) and magnetic type. Magnetic Ordering
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Diamagnetic metals produce a magnetic field opposite to the applied magnetic field. Thus, they are repelled by magnets and show magnetic nature.Diamagnetic
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List of different electrical properties and significance of Lead. Electrical Properties
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Electrical property or nature of Lead defines its electrical orientation and electrical type. Electrical Property
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Poor conductor metals have moderate resistance to electric currents. They can conduct electric current through them with very low efficiency.Poor Conductor
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Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. Resistivity
208.00 nΩ·m
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16
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Electrical conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge. Electrical Conductivity
0.05 106/cm Ω
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36
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Electron affinity is defined as the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. Electron Affinity
35.10 kJ/mol
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28
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Thermal characteristic and the concepts thermodynamics of Lead. Thermal Properties of Lead </>
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The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Specific Heat
0.13 J/(kg K)
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39
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The molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit amount (SI unit: mole) of a pure substance. Molar Heat Capacity
26.65 J/mol·K
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26
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Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. Thermal Conductivity
35.30 W/m·K
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38
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The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied. Critical Temperature
Not Available
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer. Thermal Expansion
28.90 µm/(m·K)
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13
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Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume given by the equation. Enthalpy of Lead
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The enthalpy of vaporization, also known as the heat of vaporization, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Enthalpy of Vaporization
179.40 kJ/mol
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43
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The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid. The temperature at which this occurs is the melting point. Enthalpy of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
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53
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The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound). Enthalpy of Atomization
194.60 kJ/mol
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45
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The standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure). Standard Molar Entropy
64.80 J/mol.K
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17
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Lead Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Lead metal is also represented by the symbol Pb. This atomic symbol of Lead is useful in indicating the position of metal Pb in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Lead? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Pb metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Lead

Periodic table of Lead comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Lead metal belongs to Post Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 14, whereas its period number is 6. It is placed under p block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent p block elements.

Lead Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Lead are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Lead is 82 and its atomic weight is 207.20 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. Nuclear particles in Lead atom are 125 neutrons, 82 protons and 82 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lead

Physical and chemical characteristics of Lead are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Lead include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Gray Solid. It starts melting at 327.50 °C. All these Lead metal properties together define what is Lead?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og