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What is Thallium?

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Periodic table of chemical elements is an arrangement of elements in the form of rows (period) and columns (Group). They are arranged with respect to their atomic numbers and similar characteristics. Thallium In Periodic Table </>
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It’s an atomic symbol of Thallium which helps identifying it in periodic table. Symbol
Tl
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Group number of Metals is vertical column number in periodic table. Group Number
13
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5
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Period number is a horizontal row number of Metals in periodic table. Period Number
6
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Periodic table is subdivided into 4 blocks i.e p-block, d-block, s-block and f-block. Block
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The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table and includes elements from the six columns beginning with column 13 and ending with column 18. Helium, though being in the top of group 18, is not included in the p-block.p block
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Metals belongs to the subcategory of periodic table. Different element families exist in this table. For example, Alkali metals, Transition metals, alkaline earth metals, post-transition metals, Lanthanide & Actinide series metals. Element Family
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All post transition metals are placed in group number 13, 14 and 15 of periodic table. In fact, they are located between Transition Metals and Metalloids. Post transition metals have very poor mechanical properties.Post-​Transition
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The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) is part of the American Chemical Society and maintains a database of chemical compounds and sequences. and each element has its unique identification number known as CAS number. CAS Number
7440280
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52
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of the symmetry of the crystal. Space Group Name
P63/mmc
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of thesymmetry of the crystal. Space Group Number
194.00
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5
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Want to know Interesting and lesser known facts about Thallium, then you are at the right place. Facts about Thallium </>
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Bunch of Interesting facts about Thallium. Interesting Facts
  • Compounds of Thallium metal are highly Toxic.
  • Thallium metal is being suspected as a human carcinogen.
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List of different sources of Thallium. Sources
  • Found As a By-product
  • Ores of metals
  • Ores of Minerals
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Lets check out the facts about history of Thallium. History of Thallium
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You might be wondering who discovered Thallium metal? Who Discovered Thallium
William Crookes
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Thallium metal’s discovery period. Because we think most of the metals are discovered by our ant-sisters but is it really true? Let’s Find out then! Discovery
In 1861
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Abundance percentage of Thallium metal at various places. This will give you an idea about its Abundance levels. Abundance of Thallium
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Abundance percentage of Thallium in Universe. Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
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32
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Abundance percentage of Thallium in Sun. Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
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27
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Abundance percentage of Thallium in Meteorites. Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
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41
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Abundance percentage of Thallium in Earth’s Crust. Abundance In Earth’s Crust
0.00 %
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42
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Abundance percentage of Thallium in Oceans. Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
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34
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Different types of Thallium Uses and benefits are listed down below. Uses of Thallium </>
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Uses & Benefits Uses & Benefits
  • Thallium is a toxic metal and hence it has limited uses. Thallium metal is mostly used for producing photoelectric cells.
  • In thermometer’s mercury alloy has 8% of thallium, as it has a melting point lower than 20°C.
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List of industrial uses of Thallium. Industrial Uses
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This metal is used in chemical industry where it is used making different chemical compounds or elements and alloys.Chemical Industry
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List of medical uses of Thallium. Medical Uses
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Few metals have natural sources and other few are synthetically produced these synthetically produced metals are generally used for medical research purpose.Medical Research
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List of lesser known uses of Thallium metal. Other Uses
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An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys of this metals are very useful.Alloys
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Biological properties of Thallium. Biological Properties
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Toxicity level of Thallium metal. Toxicity
Highly Toxic
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Whether Thallium metal is present in the Human Body? Present in Human Body
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What amount of Thallium is present in human blood normally? In Blood
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
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34
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What amount of Thallium is present in human bone normally? In Bone
0.00 p.p.m.
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33
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Physical properties or characteristics of Thallium. These properties are mostly related to its appearance and surface. Physical Properties of Thallium </>
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The temperature at which Metals metal starts melting. Melting Point
303.50 °C
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69
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The temperature at which Metals starts boiling. Not literally it is a temperature point at which it converts to vapors. Boiling Point
1,457.00 °C
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60
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Physical appearance or look and feel of Thallium is described here. Appearance of Thallium
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Physical state or phase of Thallium at room temperature. Physical State
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At room temperature almost all metal are found in solid physical sate but only the mercury element found in liquid state.Solid
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One might wonder, what is the exact color of Thallium metal in nature? Color
Silvery White
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Metals generally exhibit a metallic luster! Lets check out the look and feel of Thallium metal. Luster
NA
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Hardness of Thallium which measures how resistant this metals is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Hardness of Thallium
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Mohs Hardness of Thallium is a scale for measuring its hardness. Mohs Hardness
1.20
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20
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Brinell Hardness of Thallium is a scale for measuring their hardness. Brinell Hardness
26.50 MPa
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50
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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Speed of Sound
818.00 m/s
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53
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Optical properties related to refractive index & the reflectivity parameters of Thallium. Optical Properties
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Allotropes are different structural modifications of an metals; the atoms of the metals are bonded together with the help of different crystal structure. Allotropes
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these alpha allotropes of this metal are listed here. α Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these beta allotropes of this metal are listed here. β Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these gamma allotropes of this metal are listed here. γ Allotropes
Not Available
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Chemical properties or characteristics of Thallium are listed here. Chemical Properties of Thallium </>
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Chemical formula or atomic symbol of Thallium. This symbol is very useful while mentioning chemical reactions and equations of this metals. Chemical Formula
Tl
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Isotopes of Thallium are its variants, which differ in neutron number present in the nucleus. Isotopes of Thallium
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The total number of known Isotopes of this metal. Known Isotopes
32
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7
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Electronegativity
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Pauling Electronegativity is very popular scale to measure Electronegativity of metals. Pauling Electronegativity
1.62
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21
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Sanderson Electronegativity is another scale to measure the Electronegativity of metals. Sanderson Electronegativity
2.25
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5
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Allred Rochow Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.44
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17
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Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.96
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6
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Allen Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allen Electronegativity
1.79
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13
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Opposite of that is known as Electropositivity. Electropositivity
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Pauling Electropositivity is scale used to mesure Electropositivity of Thallium. Pauling Electropositivity
2.38
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33
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The ionization energy (IE) or the ionization potential is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. Ionization Energies
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1st energy level of Thallium. 1st Energy Level
589.40 kJ/mol
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58
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2nd energy level of Thallium. 2nd Energy Level
1,971.00 kJ/mol
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14
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3rd energy level of Thallium. 3rd Energy Level
2,878.00 kJ/mol
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32
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The electrochemical equivalent of a Thallium element is the mass of this element (in grams) transported by 1 coulomb of electricity. The electrochemical equivalent of an element is measured with a voltameter. Electrochemical Equivalent
7.63 g/amp-hr
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2
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Electron work function of Thallium is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface. Electron Work Function
3.84 eV
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28
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List of all chemical properties/characteristics/behavior of Thallium. Other Chemical Properties
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Corrosion is a process which converts refined metals to their more stable forms, for example, its oxide and hydroxide. This process of metals getting corroded is a gradual destruction of metals by chemical reactions.Corrosion, 
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Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.Ionization, 
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Radioactive metals emit particles and radiation from their nuclei. This process comes in the picture because their nuclei experience the intense conflict between two strong forces. This metal also have radioactive isotopes.Radioactive Isotopes, 
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Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.Solubility
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Detailed information about the atomic structure of Thallium. Atomic Properties of Thallium </>
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Atomic number of Metals is the number of protons present in the atom of Metals metal. Atomic Number
81
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35
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The electron configuration of Thallium is the distribution of its electrons in atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals. Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
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In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. There are different types of Crystal structure exhibited by metals. Crystal Structure
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The hexagonal crystal system consists of the 7 point groups such that all their space groups have the hexagonal lattice as underlying lattice. The hexagonal crystal family consists of the 12 point groups such that at least one of their space groups has theHexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
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Images of crystal lattice of Thallium. It is a symmetrical three-dimensional arrangement of atoms inside a crystal. Crystal Lattice
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Information about number of Electrons, protons and neutrons present inside the atom of Thallium Metal. Atom of Thallium
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Number of protons present in the nucleus of Thallium. Number of Protons
81
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35
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Number of neutrons present in the nucleus of Thallium. Number of Neutrons
123
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21
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Number of Electrons present inside the atom of Thallium. Number of Electrons
81
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35
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Radius of an Atom of Thallium. Different radius measures are listed below. Radius of an Atom
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The atomic radius of Thallium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Atomic Radius
170.00 pm
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22
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The covalent radius of Thallium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Covalent Radius
145.00 pm
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39
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The Van der Waals Radius of Thallium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Van der Waals Radius
196.00 pm
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30
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The atomic weight is the average of the isotope weights weighted for the isotope distribution and expressed on the 12C scale. Atomic Weight
204.38 amu
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31
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Atomic Volume of Thallium means volume of its atoms. Atomic Volume
17.20 cm3/mol
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31
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It will let know the previous and next atomic number of Thallium. Adjacent Atomic Numbers
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Previous atomic number metal. For eg. If the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the previous atomic number belongs to Platinum which is 78. Previous Element
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Next atomic number metal. For eg. if the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the next atomic number belongs to Mercury which is 80. Next Element
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The valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond. Valence Electron Potential
9.60 (-eV)
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64
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The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattice Constant
345.66 pm
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45
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The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the Lattice angle. Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
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It’s a ratio of Lattice constant by Lattice angle. Lattice C/A Ratio
1.60
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6
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List of different mechanical properties of Thallium metal. These properties test the mechanical strength of this metal. Mechanical Properties of Thallium </>
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The density of Thallium metal is a relationship between the mass of the Thallium atom and how much space it takes up (volume). Density of Thallium
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Thallium density at room temperature. Density At Room Temperature
11.85 g/cm3
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31
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Thallium density When at liquid state (at m.p.). Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
11.22 g/cm3
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13
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Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. Tensile Strength
Not Available
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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity
Not Available
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Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. Vapor Pressure of Thallium
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Vapor Pressure of Thallium at temperature 1000 K. Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
16.90 (Pa)
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5
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How much it will compress under a given amount of external pressure, that can be found with the help of its elasticity modulus. Elasticity properties
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Shear Modulus of Thallium is a measure of its elastic properties. Shear Modulus
2.80 GPa
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51
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Bulk Modulus of Thallium is a measure of its elastic properties. Bulk Modulus
43.00 GPa
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28
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Young’s Modulus of Thallium is a measure of its elastic properties. Young’s Modulus
8.00 GPa
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54
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Poisson’s ratio, named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. Poisson Ratio
0.45
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2
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Whether Thallium exhibits properties like ductility , malleability, weldability, sectility, etc. Other Mechanical Properties
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Ductility of metals defines their ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to be stretched into a wire.Ductile, 
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Sectility is the ability to be cut into pieces. Metals and paper are sectile.Sectile
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List of different magnetic properties and characteristics of Thallium. Magnetic Properties of Thallium </>
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Different Magnetic significance of Thallium. Magnetic Characteristics of Thallium
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Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Specific Gravity
11.85
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22
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Magnetic Ordering of Thallium defines its magnetic orientation (nature) and magnetic type. Magnetic Ordering
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Diamagnetic metals produce a magnetic field opposite to the applied magnetic field. Thus, they are repelled by magnets and show magnetic nature.Diamagnetic
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List of different electrical properties and significance of Thallium. Electrical Properties
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Electrical property or nature of Thallium defines its electrical orientation and electrical type. Electrical Property
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Conductor metals have very low resistance to electric currents. They can easily conduct electric current through them.Conductor
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Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. Resistivity
0.18 nΩ·m
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70
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Electrical conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge. Electrical Conductivity
0.06 106/cm Ω
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32
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Electron affinity is defined as the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. Electron Affinity
19.20 kJ/mol
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32
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Thermal characteristic and the concepts thermodynamics of Thallium. Thermal Properties of Thallium </>
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The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Specific Heat
0.13 J/(kg K)
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39
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The molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit amount (SI unit: mole) of a pure substance. Molar Heat Capacity
26.32 J/mol·K
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29
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Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. Thermal Conductivity
46.10 W/m·K
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33
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The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied. Critical Temperature
Not Available
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer. Thermal Expansion
29.90 µm/(m·K)
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12
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Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume given by the equation. Enthalpy of Thallium
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The enthalpy of vaporization, also known as the heat of vaporization, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Enthalpy of Vaporization
162.10 kJ/mol
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45
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The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid. The temperature at which this occurs is the melting point. Enthalpy of Fusion
4.27 kJ/mol
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54
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The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound). Enthalpy of Atomization
179.90 kJ/mol
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48
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The standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure). Standard Molar Entropy
64.20 J/mol.K
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19
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Thallium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Thallium metal is also represented by the symbol Tl. This atomic symbol of Thallium is useful in indicating the position of metal Tl in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Thallium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Tl metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Thallium

Periodic table of Thallium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Thallium metal belongs to Post Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 13, whereas its period number is 6. It is placed under p block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent p block elements.

Thallium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Thallium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Thallium is 81 and its atomic weight is 204.38 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1. Nuclear particles in Thallium atom are 123 neutrons, 81 protons and 81 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Thallium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Thallium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Thallium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silvery White Solid. It starts melting at 303.50 °C. All these Thallium metal properties together define what is Thallium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og