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What is Thorium?

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Periodic table of chemical elements is an arrangement of elements in the form of rows (period) and columns (Group). They are arranged with respect to their atomic numbers and similar characteristics. Thorium In Periodic Table </>
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It’s an atomic symbol of Thorium which helps identifying it in periodic table. Symbol
Th
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Group number of Metals is vertical column number in periodic table. Group Number
0
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18
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Period number is a horizontal row number of Metals in periodic table. Period Number
7
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Periodic table is subdivided into 4 blocks i.e p-block, d-block, s-block and f-block. Block
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The f-block is in the center-left of a 32-column periodic table but in the footnoted appendage of 18-column tables. These elements are not generally considered as part of any group. They are often called inner transition metals.f block
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Metals belongs to the subcategory of periodic table. Different element families exist in this table. For example, Alkali metals, Transition metals, alkaline earth metals, post-transition metals, Lanthanide & Actinide series metals. Element Family
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Total 15 metals are included in actinide series, from Actinium to Lawrencium. Actinide series is located under f and d block of the periodic table.Actinide
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The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) is part of the American Chemical Society and maintains a database of chemical compounds and sequences. and each element has its unique identification number known as CAS number. CAS Number
7440326
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49
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of the symmetry of the crystal. Space Group Name
P63/mmc
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The crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of thesymmetry of the crystal. Space Group Number
194.00
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5
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Want to know Interesting and lesser known facts about Thorium, then you are at the right place. Facts about Thorium </>
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Bunch of Interesting facts about Thorium. Interesting Facts
  • Thorium metal is used as an alternate option over Uranium for nuclear fuel.
  • Thorium metals appearance (silvery white, soft) is somewhat similar to Lead metal.
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List of different sources of Thorium. Sources
  • Found in Minerals
  • Mining
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Lets check out the facts about history of Thorium. History of Thorium
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You might be wondering who discovered Thorium metal? Who Discovered Thorium
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
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Thorium metal’s discovery period. Because we think most of the metals are discovered by our ant-sisters but is it really true? Let’s Find out then! Discovery
In 1829
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Abundance percentage of Thorium metal at various places. This will give you an idea about its Abundance levels. Abundance of Thorium
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Abundance percentage of Thorium in Universe. Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
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9
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Abundance percentage of Thorium in Sun. Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
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10
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Abundance percentage of Thorium in Meteorites. Abundance In Meteorites
0.05 %
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11
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Abundance percentage of Thorium in Earth’s Crust. Abundance In Earth’s Crust
0.66 %
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7
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Abundance percentage of Thorium in Oceans. Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
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15
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Different types of Thorium Uses and benefits are listed down below. Uses of Thorium </>
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Uses & Benefits Uses & Benefits
  • Thorium metal is used as an allying agent for Magnesium, It imparts greater strength and resistance to temperature.
  • compound of this metal Thorium oxide is used as an industrial catalyst.
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List of industrial uses of Thorium. Industrial Uses
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    Not surprisingly, about 75% of superalloys are used in the aerospace industry for turbine blades, heat exchangers, and chemical reaction vessels.Aerospace Industry
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    Automobile industry requires a very wide variety of raw materials for their production. This metal is used in this industry for making different parts of Automobile.Automobile Industry
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    This metal is used in chemical industry where it is used making different chemical compounds or elements and alloys.Chemical Industry
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    As the metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This metal is used in electrical industry where usually it is used in manufacturing different components, gadgets or wires, etc.Electrical Industry
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    Metals good are conductor of heat and electricity. Metals are used in electronic industry where usually it is used in manufacturing different components, gadgets or wires, etc.Electronic Industry
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List of medical uses of Thorium. Medical Uses
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    Dentistry is a branch of medicine that is involved in the study/diagnosis/prevention/treatment of oral diseases.Dentistry
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    Used for manufacturing surgical instruments.Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
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List of lesser known uses of Thorium metal. Other Uses
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    An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys of this metals are very useful.Alloys
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    Precious metals are used in making various types of jewelries.Jewellery
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    Used for making sculpturesSculptures
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    Used for making artistic statues.Statues
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Biological properties of Thorium. Biological Properties
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Toxicity level of Thorium metal. Toxicity
Non Toxic
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Whether Thorium metal is present in the Human Body? Present in Human Body
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What amount of Thorium is present in human blood normally? In Blood
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
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33
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What amount of Thorium is present in human bone normally? In Bone
0.02 p.p.m.
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29
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Physical properties or characteristics of Thorium. These properties are mostly related to its appearance and surface. Physical Properties of Thorium </>
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The temperature at which Metals metal starts melting. Melting Point
1,750.00 °C
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17
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The temperature at which Metals starts boiling. Not literally it is a temperature point at which it converts to vapors. Boiling Point
4,790.00 °C
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8
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Physical appearance or look and feel of Thorium is described here. Appearance of Thorium
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Physical state or phase of Thorium at room temperature. Physical State
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At room temperature almost all metal are found in solid physical sate but only the mercury element found in liquid state.Solid
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One might wonder, what is the exact color of Thorium metal in nature? Color
Silver
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Metals generally exhibit a metallic luster! Lets check out the look and feel of Thorium metal. Luster
NA
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Hardness of Thorium which measures how resistant this metals is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Hardness of Thorium
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Mohs Hardness of Thorium is a scale for measuring its hardness. Mohs Hardness
3.00
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12
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Brinell Hardness of Thorium is a scale for measuring their hardness. Brinell Hardness
390.00 MPa
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29
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Vickers Hardness of Thorium is a scale for measuring their hardness. Vickers Hardness
295.00 MPa
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29
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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Speed of Sound
2,490.00 m/s
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36
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Optical properties related to refractive index & the reflectivity parameters of Thorium. Optical Properties
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Allotropes are different structural modifications of an metals; the atoms of the metals are bonded together with the help of different crystal structure. Allotropes
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these alpha allotropes of this metal are listed here. α Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these beta allotropes of this metal are listed here. β Allotropes
Not Available
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There are usually 3 tyopes of allotropes, out of these gamma allotropes of this metal are listed here. γ Allotropes
Not Available
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Chemical properties or characteristics of Thorium are listed here. Chemical Properties of Thorium </>
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Chemical formula or atomic symbol of Thorium. This symbol is very useful while mentioning chemical reactions and equations of this metals. Chemical Formula
Th
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Isotopes of Thorium are its variants, which differ in neutron number present in the nucleus. Isotopes of Thorium
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The total number of known Isotopes of this metal. Known Isotopes
28
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11
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Electronegativity
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Pauling Electronegativity is very popular scale to measure Electronegativity of metals. Pauling Electronegativity
1.30
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32
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Allred Rochow Electronegativity is very famous scale to measure Electronegativity. Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.11
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29
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Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Opposite of that is known as Electropositivity. Electropositivity
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Pauling Electropositivity is scale used to mesure Electropositivity of Thorium. Pauling Electropositivity
2.70
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22
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The ionization energy (IE) or the ionization potential is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. Ionization Energies
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1st energy level of Thorium. 1st Energy Level
587.00 kJ/mol
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60
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2nd energy level of Thorium. 2nd Energy Level
1,110.00 kJ/mol
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73
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3rd energy level of Thorium. 3rd Energy Level
1,978.00 kJ/mol
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77
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4th energy level of Thorium. 4th Energy Level
2,780.00 kJ/mol
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67
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The electrochemical equivalent of a Thorium element is the mass of this element (in grams) transported by 1 coulomb of electricity. The electrochemical equivalent of an element is measured with a voltameter. Electrochemical Equivalent
2.16 g/amp-hr
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24
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Electron work function of Thorium is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface. Electron Work Function
3.41 eV
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32
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List of all chemical properties/characteristics/behavior of Thorium. Other Chemical Properties
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Corrosion is a process which converts refined metals to their more stable forms, for example, its oxide and hydroxide. This process of metals getting corroded is a gradual destruction of metals by chemical reactions.Corrosion, 
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Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.Ionization, 
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Radioactive metals emit particles and radiation from their nuclei. This process comes in the picture because their nuclei experience the intense conflict between two strong forces. This metal also have radioactive isotopes.Radioactive Isotopes, 
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Radioactive metals emit particles and radiation from their nuclei. This process comes in the picture because their nuclei experience the intense conflict between two strong forces.Radioactivity
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Detailed information about the atomic structure of Thorium. Atomic Properties of Thorium </>
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Atomic number of Metals is the number of protons present in the atom of Metals metal. Atomic Number
90
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28
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The electron configuration of Thorium is the distribution of its electrons in atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals. Electron Configuration
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
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In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. There are different types of Crystal structure exhibited by metals. Crystal Structure
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In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals.Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
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Images of crystal lattice of Thorium. It is a symmetrical three-dimensional arrangement of atoms inside a crystal. Crystal Lattice
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Information about number of Electrons, protons and neutrons present inside the atom of Thorium Metal. Atom of Thorium
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Number of protons present in the nucleus of Thorium. Number of Protons
90
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28
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Number of neutrons present in the nucleus of Thorium. Number of Neutrons
142
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16
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Number of Electrons present inside the atom of Thorium. Number of Electrons
90
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28
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Radius of an Atom of Thorium. Different radius measures are listed below. Radius of an Atom
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The atomic radius of Thorium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Atomic Radius
179.80 pm
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15
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The covalent radius of Thorium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Covalent Radius
206.00 pm
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7
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The Van der Waals Radius of Thorium can be defined as a measure of the size of its atoms. Van der Waals Radius
237.00 pm
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15
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The atomic weight is the average of the isotope weights weighted for the isotope distribution and expressed on the 12C scale. Atomic Weight
232.04 amu
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23
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Atomic Volume of Thorium means volume of its atoms. Atomic Volume
19.90 cm3/mol
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20
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It will let know the previous and next atomic number of Thorium. Adjacent Atomic Numbers
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Previous atomic number metal. For eg. If the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the previous atomic number belongs to Platinum which is 78. Previous Element
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Next atomic number metal. For eg. if the atomic number of Gold is 79 then the next atomic number belongs to Mercury which is 80. Next Element
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The valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond. Valence Electron Potential
59.30 (-eV)
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23
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The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattice Constant
508.42 pm
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14
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The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the Lattice angle. Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
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It’s a ratio of Lattice constant by Lattice angle. Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
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List of different mechanical properties of Thorium metal. These properties test the mechanical strength of this metal. Mechanical Properties of Thorium </>
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The density of Thorium metal is a relationship between the mass of the Thorium atom and how much space it takes up (volume). Density of Thorium
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Thorium density at room temperature. Density At Room Temperature
11.72 g/cm3
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32
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Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. Tensile Strength
Not Available
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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity
Not Available
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Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. Vapor Pressure of Thorium
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Vapor Pressure of Thorium at temperature 2000 K. Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
0.00 (Pa)
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22
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How much it will compress under a given amount of external pressure, that can be found with the help of its elasticity modulus. Elasticity properties
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Shear Modulus of Thorium is a measure of its elastic properties. Shear Modulus
31.00 GPa
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21
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Bulk Modulus of Thorium is a measure of its elastic properties. Bulk Modulus
54.00 GPa
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22
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Young’s Modulus of Thorium is a measure of its elastic properties. Young’s Modulus
79.00 GPa
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24
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Poisson’s ratio, named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. Poisson Ratio
0.27
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20
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Whether Thorium exhibits properties like ductility , malleability, weldability, sectility, etc. Other Mechanical Properties
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Ductility of metals defines their ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the metals ability to be stretched into a wire.Ductile
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List of different magnetic properties and characteristics of Thorium. Magnetic Properties of Thorium </>
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Different Magnetic significance of Thorium. Magnetic Characteristics of Thorium
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Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Specific Gravity
11.70
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23
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Magnetic Ordering of Thorium defines its magnetic orientation (nature) and magnetic type. Magnetic Ordering
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Paramagnetic metals are slightly attracted by magnet, but they can’t retain the magnetic effect once they are removed from the magnetic field.Paramagnetic
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List of different electrical properties and significance of Thorium. Electrical Properties
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Electrical property or nature of Thorium defines its electrical orientation and electrical type. Electrical Property
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Under certain conditions, superconductor metals offer zero resistance to electric current it means this type of metals will conduct electricity without any resistance.Superconductor
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Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. Resistivity
157.00 nΩ·m
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22
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Electrical conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge. Electrical Conductivity
0.07 106/cm Ω
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31
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Thermal characteristic and the concepts thermodynamics of Thorium. Thermal Properties of Thorium </>
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The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Specific Heat
0.12 J/(kg K)
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40
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The molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit amount (SI unit: mole) of a pure substance. Molar Heat Capacity
26.23 J/mol·K
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30
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Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. Thermal Conductivity
54.00 W/m·K
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28
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The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied. Critical Temperature
Not Available
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer. Thermal Expansion
11.00 µm/(m·K)
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36
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Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume given by the equation. Enthalpy of Thorium
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The enthalpy of vaporization, also known as the heat of vaporization, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Enthalpy of Vaporization
429.00 kJ/mol
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15
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The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid. The temperature at which this occurs is the melting point. Enthalpy of Fusion
15.48 kJ/mol
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19
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The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound). Enthalpy of Atomization
468.60 kJ/mol
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15
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The standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure). Standard Molar Entropy
27.30 J/mol.K
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56
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Thorium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Thorium metal is also represented by the symbol Th. This atomic symbol of Thorium is useful in indicating the position of metal Th in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Thorium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Th metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Thorium

Periodic table of Thorium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Thorium metal belongs to Actinide Series category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 0, whereas its period number is 7. It is placed under f block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent f block elements.

Thorium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Thorium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Thorium is 90 and its atomic weight is 232.04 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Rn] 6d2 7s2. Nuclear particles in Thorium atom are 142 neutrons, 90 protons and 90 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Thorium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Thorium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Thorium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silver Solid. It starts melting at 1,750.00 °C. All these Thorium metal properties together define what is Thorium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og